Chemosynthesis Of Archaea 30 60 90 Day Business Plan Examples
There, mineral-laden fluid is emitted either as a warm (5-100 degrees Celsius/41-212 degrees Fahrenheit), diffuse flow from seabed cracks or as plumes of superheated water (250-400 degrees Celsius/482-752 degrees Fahrenheit) from chimney-like structures.
These structures are referred to as hydrothermal vents, and the assortment of animals surrounding them are referred to as hydrothermal vent communities.
The animals are spectacular, but often overlooked are the organisms that make these ecosystems possible: the microbes that convert the mineral-laden fluid into energy.
Green sulfur bacteria contain chlorosomes, organelles that are so efficient at harvesting light that green sulfur bacteria can grow at much lower light intensities than other light-requiring microbes.
Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic to most animals, including people.
However, animals at hydrothermal vents have special biochemical adaptations that protect them from hydrogen sulfide.
It's this process that gives the microbe its name: has been isolated from hydrothermal sediments at Kolbeinsey Ridge off the coast of Iceland and the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California.
In the laboratory its cells can even divide at 122°C, the highest temperature known to be compatible with microbial growth, though it grows best at 98°C.