Essay S For High School On Any Topic 2004 Essay On Working Mothers Are Better Mothers
1996; Rinnert and Kobayashi 2001; Siddiqui 2016), questionnaires (e.g., Shi 2001) and panel discussions (e.g., Kuiken and Vedder 2014) have been used by different researchers to find an answer to the Research Questions 1 and 2 outlined in the next section.
Qualitative data came from semi-structured interviews with the selected markers and short written commentaries by the markers to rationalize their scores on the essays.To find out the answer to the 3 The context for the study is the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSCC) conducted by the BISE in the Punjab province of Pakistan.Out of a total of nine BISEs in the Punjab, three are responsible for conducting examinations in South Punjab (SP).The current research attempts to explore the evaluation criteria of markers on a national level high stakes examination conducted at 12th grade by three examination boards in the South of Pakistan.Fifteen markers and 30 students participated in the study.One factor that makes this context particularly interesting is that raters are not provided with formal criteria to guide their assessment and this makes it even more likely that variations in the criteria raters use will exist.Language testers and researchers emphasize the importance of reliability in scoring since scorer reliability is central to test reliability (Hughes 1989; Lumley 2002). 3) believes that “rating discrepancy between raters may cause a very serious impediment to assuring test validation, thereby incurring the mistrust of the language assessment process itself.” Bachman and Alderson (2004), while openly acknowledging the difficulties raters face in assessing essays, consider writing to be one of the most difficult areas of language to assess.An overview of the relevant assessment literature shows that a variety of qualitative and quantitative tools like introspective and retrospective think aloud protocols (e.g., Cumming et al.2001, 2002; Erdosy 2004), group or individual interviews (e.g., Erdosy 2004), written score explanations (e.g., Barkaoui 2010; Milanovic et al.Research has shown that, in contexts where essays are assessed by more than one rater, discrepancies often exist among the different raters because they do not apply scoring criteria consistently (Hamp-Lyons 1989; Lee 1998; Vann et al. This study examines this issue in Pakistan, a context where composition writing is a standard feature of English assessment systems at the secondary & post-secondary levels, but where no research has been conducted into the criteria raters use in assessing written work.The particular focus of this project is a large-scale high-stakes examination conducted by the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) in the Punjab province of Pakistan.