How Do You Start A Literature Review

For example: An example of the possible structure for a literature review: Introduction Establish the importance of the topic Number and type of people affected Seriousness of the impact Physical, psychological, economic, social aspects Definitions of key terms Literature review strategies Description of the extent and nature of the literature Overview of the organization of the rest of the review Body of the review Topic 1 Supporting evidence Topic 2 Supporting evidence Topic 3 Supporting evidence Summary of the review Discussion Conclusions Implications Suggestions for future research List of references After you have written your first draft, use this checklist to review your progress: Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure.For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.Williams (2004) offers one explanation of this phenomenon.An alternative perspective has been provided by Williams (2004).Compare and contrast valid approaches, features, characteristics, theories – that is, one approach, then a 2nd approach, followed by a 3rd approach.Finally, consider the use of summary paragraphs throughout the body of the review.

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This is done by summarizing current understandings and by discussing why what we already knows leads to the need for the present research.Or it might describe one phenomenon, then describe another phenomenon that seems inconsistent with the first one, then propose a theory that resolves the inconsistency, and finally present a hypothesis to test that theory.In applied research, it might describe a phenomenon or theory, then describe how that phenomenon or theory applies to some important real-world situation, and finally suggest a way to test whether it does, in fact, apply to that situation.Instead of beginning a paragraph by launching into a description of a previous study, such as “Williams (2004) found that…,” it is better to start by indicating something about why you are describing this particular study.Here are some simple examples: Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams (2004).Looking at the literature review in this way emphasizes a few things.First, it is extremely important to start with an outline of the main points that you want to make, organized in the order that you want to make them.Every in text citation must have a listing in the references and every title in the reference list should connect to an in-text citation.The literature reviews generally move from general to more specific, taking in all the elements mentioned previously.One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it, “In this article, I will describe two apparently contradictory phenomena, present a new theory that has the potential to resolve the apparent contradiction, and finally present a novel hypothesis to test the theory.” Another way is to open each paragraph with a sentence that summarizes the main point of the paragraph and links it to the preceding points.These opening sentences provide the “transitions” that many beginning researchers have difficulty with.

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