Motivation Theories Essay Best Creative Writing Programs 2014
To try to understand the principles of motivational theories one must first try to understand business literature and psychology.
Motivation factors in the work environment include reward, expectation, autonomy and work and performance feedback.
He identified three traits of high achievement people: They favour work situations in of personal responsibility for problem solving. Maslow, a university psychology professor, arranged human needs into five levels (Maslow, 1970). He observed the extent of some employees' poor performances, which convinced him that success was only possible when employees performed short, controlled tasks, thus meaning that efficiency was increased and little training was required.
They take calculated risks and set achievement goals. These levels are (in ascending order): Physiological (e.g. The problem with this is staffs grow increasingly bored of repetitive tasks and have no method of skill improvement or advancement within the organisation. Rousseau, a professor of Organizational behaviour, believes that organizations cannot succeed if their employees don’t agree to contribute to their goals and survival.
Provide reports to workers and not just managers on a regular basis. David Mc Clelland, a Harvard psychologist studied developed the Need for Achievement theory (aka Achievement Motivation Theory). The theory is still used by managers and executives who have adopted a need for self-actualization when trying to apply motivating for the job. Taylor brought ideas about motivation based on the belief that workers act to fulfil their own self interest.
Keeping them in the loop makes them feel part of the team and also gives them the opportunity to provide feedback of their own. He realised that high achievers value extrinsic rewards like money as methods of scoring, but that the satisfaction from achievement, arouse their performance. He deduced that there was an "us versus them" relationship between employees and employers.
Allow employees to complete a task not just do part of it. However, a case study made in India with regards to the Quality of Life (Qo L).
Employees with high autonomy, receive feedback on performance from identifiably important pieces of skilled work.
Extrinsic motivation occurs when people are driven by external factors, such as any promised rewards or incentives. Chart shows good working relationships as the most important factor Figure 1: Most Important Job Satisfaction Factors 20 (Australian Public Services Commission, 2005-2009) Factors involved in creating job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction were gathered by the Australian Public Services Commission (APSC) in 20 during their general census, depicted on figure 1.
It is suggested that an incline in extrinsic motivators will cause declines in intrinsic motivation. The results pointed out that motivators were the main cause of satisfaction and hygiene factors were the primary cause of unhappiness. Physiological, safety and social needs are ones basic needs.
Deci and colleagues made a motion that intrinsic motivation ensues when people feel self-determined and competent (Deci, 2004). This work displayed five components to motivation: Skill variety. There are two types of people’s needs involved here. hunger makes its necessary to earn money, making money a specific drive).
One psychological view claims that very high levels of intrinsic motivation set with strong work interest and involvement, by perfect matches of task complexity with skill level, means individuals merge with their activities, experiencing a sense of "psychological flow" (cited by Csíkszentmihályi, et al., 2012). The other need is the ability to gain psychological growth through achievement.